Specialized in Solar Drying and Solar hot air system


    Since 1989,PEN has Installed 9000 sq.mtr of solar collector for tea leaves drying, spices drying, fruits and vegetables dehydration, dal, leather, ceramics, fish, cloth and salt drying.

  • Using Solar Air Heating technology 12000 tones of Fuel wood equivalent is saved and there is a reduction of 50 tones per year of green house gas emission to the atmosphere.

  • Ministry of New and Renewable Energy S (MNRE) and Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MFPI) both of Government of India, extended their support to Planters Energy Network through Research and Development projects.

  • Successfully conducted three International Conferences to disseminate the applications of Solar and other renewable energy technologies to Industries and agriculture.

  • PEN has the exclusive services of leading solar Scientist Dr.C.Palaniappan.

  • Developed innovative projects in collaboration with leading Institutions and Universities in Germany (Technical University of Munich, Munich & Institute of Agricultural Engineering (ATB), Potsdam, Berlin), Italy (International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Trieste & Ancona University), Netherlands and Australia.

  • Received 2 patents on its Solar Air Heating Technology.

Spain: New Plan for Renewable Energy

Spain's new energy law, passed earlier this summer, is designed to attract 23 billion Euro [approx. USD$27 billion] in investment by improving the legislative environment for renewable energy.

The challenge is to make the renewable energy sector attractive to private investors, and to maintain and strengthen the interest that has been consolidated in some sectors, and extend it to others in which only timid steps have been taken so far.

-- Plan de Energias Renovables

The Energy Context in Spain

One of the characteristics of the Spanish energy system is its high degree of dependence on imports. 80 percent of energy consumption has to be met from imported sources. Spain imports approximately 64 percent of the coal, 99.5 percent of the oil and 99.1 percent of the gas it uses. Moreover, oil accounts for around 50 percent of primary energy consumption.

The strategies defined for the energy sector have been shaped by the international commitments of the European Union as a whole, and those of Spain in particular relating to energy supply and climate change. Promoting the use of energy from renewable sources plays a fundamental role in meeting both commitments.

Clearly, as is necessarily the case, Spain's energy policy objectives coincide with those established by the European Union: a competitive and transparent liberalised market, security of supply, improved energy efficiency and protection of the environment.

In Spain the development of renewable energy sources has been supported by various instruments over the last twenty-five years. A law promoting their use was first passed in 1980.

On August 26, 2005 the Spanish government approved the new Renewable Energy Plan (Plan de Energias Renovables, PER), which supersedes the Renewable Energy Promotion Plan, which dates back to 1999. The overall aim of the new Plan is to make it possible to achieve the target of 12 percent of primary energy being met from renewable sources by 2010 and to do so it sets more ambitious objectives in those areas that have been developing successfully and establishes new measures to support technologies that have not yet managed to take off.

The Renewable Energy Plan for 2005-2010 (PER)

Renewable energy sources contribute to reducing energy dependence and increasing security of supply. Moreover, the development of renewable energy can make an active contribution to job creation, generally in less favored and sparsely populated areas. They can therefore contribute to rural development and stemming the rural exodus.

The PER is an indicative Plan, meaning that it is not binding upon the actors in the energy system. However, it is hoped that slightly more than 97 percent of investments will come from the private sector. The aim is therefore to create a sufficiently attractive framework based on stability and profitability. The contribution of public funds to these investments is estimated to be just 2.9 percent.

The Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy (Instituto para la Diversificacion y Ahorro de la Energia, IDAE), a public state-owned body, has been entrusted with the task of preparing the PER. The methodology applied during the preparation of the Plan was aimed to ensure the participation of national government, the governments of Spain's autonomous regions, and academic and professional institutions.

In each area an exhaustive analysis was conducted of state of the art technologies together with an evaluation of the requirements to overcome the main barriers to developing renewable energy sources in Spain. Concrete proposals for actions to overcome these barriers were then put forward. IDAE is also the body in charge of the monitoring of the PER.

Forecasts in the PER

In the most likely energy scenario the 2005-2010 Renewable Energy Plan targets will enable 12.1 percent of primary energy consumption to be met from renewable sources by 2010. Within this overall target, in 2010 electricity generation from renewable sources will account for 30.3 percent of gross consumption and liquid biofuels will account for 5.8 percent of petrol and diesel consumption for transport purposes.

The table below gives detailed information on the current situation and the targets for 2010.


Situation in 2004 (average year (1)Target in 2010

Capacity (MW)Energy (GWh)Energy (ktoe)Capacity (MW)Energy (GWh)Energy (ktoe)
Electricity Generation

Hydro-electric (>50MW) (3)13,52125,0141,97913,52125,0141,979
Hydro-electric (10 MW to 50 MW)2,8975,7944983,2576,480557
Hydro-electric (<10>1,7495,4214662,1996,692575
Biomass power stations3442,1936801,3178,9803,586
Wind power8,15519,5711,68320,15545,5113,914
Solar photovoltaic3756540060952
Solar thermoelectric---5001,298509
TOTAL ELECTRICITY GENERATION AREAS27,03360,0975,97342,494102,25913,574
Thermal uses


Low temperature solar thermal







CONSUMPTION OF PRIMARY ENERGY (ktoe) (Energy scenario: Trend/PER)


Energy from renewable sources/Primary energy (%)



(1) Provisional 2004 data. For hydroelectric, wind, solar photovoltaic and solar thermal, the output for an average year has been taken, based on the power output and surface area in operation as of 31 December 2004, according to the characteristics of the installations brought into operation to date, and not the actual 2004 data. Thermal biogas and geothermal energy are not included. In 2004 these produced 28 and 8 ktoe, respectively [toe = tons of oil equivalent].

Technology Targets

As the table shows, a large share of the target is based on the contribution of wind power, which is forecast to reach 20,155 MW of installed capacity in 2010. The starting point is an installed capacity of 8,155 MW at the end of 2004.

This figure has already placed Spain in second position worldwide, just behind Germany, and ahead of the United States. The development of wind power in Spain has been accompanied by the creation of companies that have developed their own technology and who compete successfully on international markets.

By contrast, biomass, which is the other fundamental pillar to achieving the PER's targets, has not developed as fast as expected. The current Plan envisages new mechanisms to overcome the barriers to its development and, as a new feature, it includes the setting up of a co-combustion programme (for the joint combustion of biomass and coal in existing power stations).

Regarding liquids biofuels for transport (LBT) the results achieved so far make it possible to be optimistic about achieving the objectives set for 2010. In the case of bioethanol Spain is the first producer in Europe.

In solar energy, within a short space of time Spain has achieved a position of international leadership in photovoltaics, with three companies in the European top ten. By contrast, one of the challenges in the Plan is to overcome the barriers to the development of solar-thermal energy. Another important innovation envisaged in the Plan is the development of the first 500 MW solar-thermoelectric power stations in 2010.

Alongside these energy targets it is hoped that other social and environmental goals will be achieved. In terms of employment over 1,300 companies are currently registered as being active in the sector. And in terms of the environment, the application of the Plan will avoid 27.3 million tons of CO2 emissions in 2010.

Funding of the Plan

Achieving the goals set implies a volume of investment estimated at approximately 23.6 billion Euros [approx. USD$27.7 billion]. Of this 97.1 percent is expected to come from private sources. Just 681 million Euros [approx. USD$799 million], 2.9 percent of the total, will be in the form of public investment aid.

The challenge is therefore to make the renewable energy sector attractive to private investors, or rather, to maintain and strengthen the interest that has already been consolidated in some sectors, and extend it to others in which only timid steps have been taken so far.

Of the approximately 22.9 billion Euros [approx. USD$26.9 billion] that it is hoped the private sector will attract, it is estimated that 4.7 billion Euros [approx. USD$5.5 billion] will come from direct contributions from developers and the remaining 18.2 billion Euros [approx. USD$21.4 billion], will come from bank loans provided through the usual financial mechanisms.

In addition to the direct investment subsidies already mentioned, there are two other modes of public aid that are fundamental from the economic point of view. These are the premiums paid for electricity generated from renewable sources and the tax exemptions for LBT.

The premiums for electricity generated from renewable sources are fundamental. This system has been used successfully to date and has created the favorable conditions for the spectacular growth of certain sectors, in particular wind power. The premium is a supplement to the price electricity producers can obtain on the market.

The total value of the premiums related to the new generating facilities brought into operation over the period 2005-2010 is predicted to reach 4.9 billion Euros [approx. USD$5.8 billion]. From 2010 the annual premiums are forecast to be worth 1.8 billion Euros [approx. USD$2.1 billion]. It is worth stressing that although the figures are large in absolute terms, the impact on electricity prices of the premium policy is an increase of around 0.6 percent a year.

The tax incentives for the use of LBT consist of an exemption from the tax on hydrocarbon fuels of the retail price. With this measure, the price of biofuels to the final consumer can be brought down to a level that allows them to compete with petroleum derivatives.

About the Authors:
Jose Gil and Hugo Lucas are in the International Relations Department of
The Institute for Diversification and Saving of Energy (Instituto para la Diversificacion y Ahorro de la Energia, or IDAE), a public state-owned body based in Madrid, Spain.

Spain is one of eight donor countries (excluding the European Union) to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Program (REEEP). Austria, Germany, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union all contribute funds to the REEEP.

RenewableEnergyAccess.com is seeking both domestic and international contributing newswriters to communicate news, trends, issues and policy on Renewable Energy from their home countries. Please follow this link to indicate your interest.

Renewable energy plan unveiled for 2006-2010

BEIJING -- China's annual consumption of renewable energy will reach the equivalent of 300 million tons of standard coal by 2010, which would be 10 percent of its total annual energy consumption, under the renewable energy development plan for 2006-2010.

The plan was released on Tuesday by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the country's top economic planning agency.

The plan says 2010 renewable energy consumption will nearly double the 2005 level, which was equivalent to 166 million tons of standard coal. That led to a reduction of 3 million tons of sulfur dioxide emissions and more than 400 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions.

Given the dearth of petroleum and natural gas resources and the large share of coal in China's energy production, it is difficult for the nation to sustain its development and protect the environment by relying simply on fossil fuels, the NDRC said.

China boasts abundant renewable resources that could be exploited, the plan says. It says that by 2010:

-- the nation will have hydropower projects with a combined installed capacity of 190 million kilowatts and wind power projects with installed capacity of 10 million kw.

-- the installed capacity of bio-energy projects will reach 5.5 million kw and that of solar energy projects will be 300,000 kw.

-- domestically produced hydropower equipment and solar water heaters should become competitive on global markets.

-- wind power equipment manufacturers should put generating units with installed capacities of at least 1.5 million watts into mass production.

cubic mile of oil (CMO)

I just ran across an interesting article about renewable energy over at the Green Tech weblog. In it, they break down the type of investment that would be required to replace the energy provided by a cubic mile of oil (CMO).

In case you’re not aware (as I wasn’t), a CMO is a measure of energy consumption. Apparently the world consumes slightly more than one CMO worth of energy from oil per year, and the equivalent of three CMOs from all energy sources. Over 80% of this total energy usage comes from fossil fuels, including oil, coal, and natural gas (see graph, below).

So… What would it require to replace just one CMO of fossil energy per year?

Solar panels

Assuming annual electricity capture of 2.1 megawatts per solar panel, we’d have to place them on 4.2 billion rooftops. In other words, we’d have to install on them on 250,000 roofs per day for the next 50 years to have enough solar panels to offset our current annual oil usage (and this ignores things like coal; see below).

Wind power

What about wind power generators? You’d need 3 million to equal one CMO. That would require the installation of 1,200 per week for the next 50 years.

Hydroelectric power

A large hydroelectric dam can generate roughly 18 gigawatts of power per year. Thus, to offset one CMO of energy, we’d have to build 200 major hydroelectric dams. The problem? There aren’t enough rivers left in the world to dam up.

Solar thermal power

It would require 7,700 solar thermal plants to offset one CMO. That would require the construction of 150 plants per year for 50 years. Unfortunately, just one has been built in the past 15 years.

Nuclear power plants

It would take 2,500 nuclear power plants producing 900 megawatts to produce the equivalent of one CMO worth of energy. In other words, we’d have to build one a week for 50 years. It’s also worth noting that nuclear power isn’t exactly renewable.

The future of demand

Even if we decided to pursue one of the above options, it’s important to keep in mind that energy demand is continually increasing. According to Ripudaman Malhotra, a fossil fuels researcher at SRI International, world energy demand is expected to double to six CMOs within the next 30 years.

The good news here is that we still have time. Current estimates show oil reserves of roughly 46 CMOs, natural gas reserves totalling 42 CMOs, and coal reserves of 121 CMOs. These numbers increase further when you add in difficult to extract sources such as tar sands.

The bad news is that, beyond being non-renewable, these sources of energy also have a number of adverse environmental impacts, and burning more of them at a faster rate is just going to create more problems.

The way forward

Clearly, if we’re ever going to come anywhere near freeing ourselves from fossil fuels — an eventual necessity, as we’ll ultimately run out — it will require a tremendous investment, a variety of different technologies (likely including some that haven’t been invented yet), and an awful lot of conservation.

Unfortunately, we’re dealing with a problem on such a massive scale that minor changes won’t be enough. Consider, for example, that replacing 1 billion incandescent bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs only saves 0.01 CMOs per year. Yes, it’s important to cut back wherever we can. In this case, however, baby steps won’t be enough.

It’s also important to keep in mind that all of the technologies listed above result in electricity production. Given that a large fraction of our energy consumption is currently non-electric, we’ll need a lot of other infrastructure changes to go along with this.

Future of Renewable Energy

Nanotechnology and the Future of Renewable Energy

Nanotechnology operates at such a fundamental level that there is very little of a technological nature that it will not impact. Thus its effects on energy generation, transmission, storage and consumption are numerous and diverse. Some will be incremental and some quite possibly revolutionary.

So, greenhouse nightmare or an emission-free future? Nanotechnology can enable them both. Barring a global wave of forward planning unseen in mankind's history, economics will probably make the decision for us.

Rather than trying to sketch the whole landscape, a few examples will hopefully illustrate the variety.

At the mundane end of the scale you have anti-fouling paints for wave or tidal power, or materials with a higher tolerance for radiation in nuclear reactors. I did say mundane.

In wind power, the potentially enormous improvements in strength-to-weight ratio of composite materials used in blades could pay back surprisingly well because the relationship of blade length to efficiency is not linear but follows a power law -- though there is much argument about how this pans out in the real world.

At the other extreme of nanotech impact, you have solar energy. We are children in this area, and the playground is built on the nanoscale. Almost any development is going to involve nanotech -- an intriguing recent exception being the use of lenses to focus light on old-fashioned silicon photovoltaics, thus demanding less of this expensive material.

But what makes for a revolution in energy generation? Two things: availability and economics. The fact that solar energy is so bountiful -- enough hits the Earth in a minute to meet our global requirements for at least a week -- makes it potentially revolutionary; it's just the cost of capturing that energy that has been standing in the way. Reduce that enough, or increase the cost of the alternatives, and you have a winning scenario.

One other energy source could, I believe, be equally revolutionary. Not fusion, which, despite the dreams of my youth, I sadly have to relegate to a distant future, not that the ongoing experiments aren't worthwhile. But geothermal energy, boring as hot rocks and steam may sound, has revolutionary potential for the same reason as solar -- an essentially unlimited supply of energy untapped only because of economics.

The nanotech connection is not as direct here as with solar -- you have tougher materials to cut drilling costs or thermoelectric tunneling for efficient low-grade heat conversion -- but it only takes the right conjunction of developments and geothermal power stations will be springing up, or down, all over the place.

I've only considered here principal power generation, but this should already give some sense of the breadth and potential scale of impact. I'd be surprised to find any reader of this unaware of the excitement surrounding developments in fuel cell and battery technology. Nanotechnology figures almost without exception in the cutting edge of both.

So how do nanotechnology-based solutions apply to environmental concerns and energy security issues?

From an energy security point of view, nanotech developments are invariably positive since, at the very least, they can help save energy -- aerogels for better insulation, IR-reflective window coatings, low-grade heat conversion in cars, etc. They also assist to varying degrees in the development of alternatives to the fossil fuels upon which so many of us are now so dangerously dependent. I've already mentioned the potential of solar and geothermal energy.

On the environmental front the answer is not so clear. We live in a world where short-term economics have an overwhelming influence on decision making.

The good news for those who worry about things like global warming, is that the increasing cost of oil -- a long-term trend that will not stop, oil being a finite resource -- and the decreasing cost of alternative sources such as solar energy, give renewables an ever more favorable economic position. When you look at the diverse spread of nanotech-related impacts they are almost always supporting technologies with an improved environmental profile.

Unfortunately, there is a rather big exception to this. Nanotechnology has helped improve the effectiveness of catalysts. Fuel cells and catalytic converters are among the welcome beneficiaries.

But catalysis is also at the heart of gas-to-liquid and coal liquefaction technologies that promise oil independence for those with access to previously uneconomical gas reserves or to coal reserves. Energy security is a big carrot and it so happens that two highly populated countries that rank among the fastest-growing economies in the world, and thus the fastest-growing energy consumers, are coal-rich: China and India. North America too is coal-rich.

If such countries can start to economically run their cars, trucks and buses on diesel made from coal -- which ironically is low-emission compared with normal diesel at the vehicle end but overall produces more CO2 than oil-based diesel -- then we could be looking at a greenhouse gas nightmare scenario since there is enough coal in the world to supply our energy needs for hundreds of years.

So, greenhouse nightmare or an emission-free future? Nanotechnology can enable them both. Barring a global wave of forward planning unseen in mankind's history, economics will probably make the decision for us.

Making the Transition from Old to New Energy

I think that the likeliest difference between "old" and "new" energy, and the generator of greatest debate, will be systemic rather than one particular technology or another. The question of when and how the transition to new energy occurs is also intriguing -- as the coal liquefaction scenario above shows, we could in theory be stuck with the old, or pretty similar, for some time to come.

Only coal and nuclear fission are potential candidates for maintaining the uniform and monolithic energy network we have now in the developed world. There are good reasons to avoid both, if we can -- some would argue that we cannot.

All the alternatives involve a mix of technologies and energy sources, with energy not always being produced where you want and when you want, thus producing a far more complex system than we have now. The phrase 'intelligent grid' is often held up as an example of how this complexity will operate, with buying, selling and saving of energy being possible at many scales.

I'd rather do away with the 'grid' word altogether because it evokes the electricity grid that we in the developed world generally take for granted but which exists only as a consequence of our historical dependence on fossil fuels, and is grossly inefficient.

In a mixed-energy-source scenario, the traditional grid would be challenged by localized generation, the form of which would vary according to location: Saudi, sunshine. Greenland, geothermal.

The off-grid or localized grid scenario begs the question of how large amounts of energy will be transferred from one place to another, which will no doubt continue to be either required or an economically viable activity. The classic answer is hydrogen, but it is unfortunately a lousy way to transport energy, thanks largely to its volatility.

In theory, the development of cheap, high-load superconducting cables -- perhaps made of carbon nanotubes -- might keep the old-fashioned grid alive but it seems to me that an efficient means of converting whatever energy source happens to be available to you into a fuel that is liquid, or close to it, at room temperature -- e.g., methanol -- combined with a fuel cell technology to make good use of it, would be a hard system to beat when it comes to storage and transmission.

As I write, there are at least a few scientists around the world trying to figure out ways to outdo Mother Nature in turning sunlight into a compact, transportable energy source. All of which happens, of course, on the nanoscale.

Ten facts about renewable energy

As the impact of fossil fuels on our environment becomes ever more stark, renewable energy - with its non-polluting qualities and infinite capacity - is just what we need to save our fragile planet. It's thanks to the work of engineers and scientists that we are able to harness the renewable energy available to us and make it useful. Prepare yourself for our top 10 must-know renewable energy facts...

1. There are five main forms of renewable energy: solar, wind, water, biofuel and geothermal (heat from the earth).

2. If it could be properly harnessed, enough sunlight falls on the earth in just one hour to meet world energy demands for a whole year!

3. Ever the innovator, Albert Einstein (left) won the Nobel Prize in Physics 1921 for his ground-breaking experiments with solar power and photovoltaics.

4. The geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than in others. Where hot underground steam or water can be tapped and brought to the surface it can be used to generate electricity.

5. A world record was set in 1990 when a solar-powered aircraft flew across the USA in 21 stages, using no fuel at all.

6. One wind turbine can produce enough electricity to power up to 300 homes.

7. The largest wind turbine in the world, located in Hawaii, stands 20 storeys tall and has blades the length of a football pitch.

8. An average wind speed of just 14mph is needed to convert wind energy into electricity; that shouldn't be too hard to come by in breezy Britain!

9. Water is the most commonly used renewable energy resource, providing enough power to meet the needs of 28.3 million people.

10. Those clever old Romans not only gave us the modern drainage system and many of our roads, they were also among the first to use geothermal energy to heat houses.

Fun Facts about Renewable Energy

Fun facts about wind power

In 200 B.C., people in China and the Middle East used windmills to pump water and grind grain.

The first modern wind turbine was built in Vermont in the early 1940s.

Wind farms currently produce enough electricity to meet the needs of more than 600,000 families in the United States.

The largest wind turbine in the world, located in Hawaii, stands 20 stories tall and has blades the length of a football field.

An average wind speed of 14 miles per hour is needed to convert wind energy into electricity.

Wind farm

One wind turbine can produce enough electricity to power up to 300 homes.

Learn more about wind power

Make your own wind power toys

Fun facts about biomass energy

Almost half of the renewable energy produced in the United States comes from biomass sources, li

Switchgrass is a biomass energy crop

ke wood and paper products.

In Iowa and Wisconsin, biomass energy from landfills and dairy farms is being used to make electricity.

In southern Iowa, a power plant is using a crop called switchgrass to make electricity.

Learn more about biomass energy

Fun facts about hydro power

Water power has been used for grinding grain for more than 2,000 years

Water power has been used for grinding grain for more than 2,000 years.

The first U.S. hydroelectric power plant opened on the Fox River near Appleton, Wisconsin, on September 30, 1882.

Worldwide, water is the most commonly used renewable energy resource, providing enough power to meet the needs of 28.3 million consumers.

Hydro power currently provides about 10 percent of the electricity in the United States.

Learn more about hydro power

Fun facts about geothermal energy

Geothermal energy uses heat from under the earth

Volcanoes and geysers are examples of geothermal energy.

In 1864, a hotel in Oregon heated rooms using geothermal energy from underground hot springs.

The first geothermal power plant opened in California in 1921.

A professor at Ohio State University invented the first geothermal heating system in 1948.

Learn more about geothermal power

Fun facts about solar power

More than 10,000 homes in the United States are powered entirely by solar energy.

Enough sunlight falls on the earth's surface every hour to meet world energy demand for an entire year.

Silicon from just one ton of sand, used in photovoltaic cells, could produce as much electricity as burning 500,000 tons of coal.

In the 1830s, the British astronomer John Herschel used a solar collector box to cook food during an expedition to Africa.

Albert Einstein won the Nobel Prize in 1921 for his experiments with solar power and photovoltaics.

The first big solar power plant opened in California in 1982.

Learn more about solar power

Make your own solar oven

Enough sunlight falls on the earth's surface every hour to meet world energy demand for an entire year

Renewable Energy - Facts

What Is Renewable Energy?

By definition, renewable energy is "clean" - producing few or no hazardous emissions or pollutants, and having minimal impact on fragile ecosystems.

There are five main types of renewable energy: hydro, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind.

While each of these can be used to generate electricity, only hydro and biomass currently provide a significant amount of power [see chart below] - but that fact will change in the coming decades.

In addition to the obvious environmental benefits, green power could have major economic advantages as well:

  • It decreases our dependence on foreign oil imports and the resulting price fluctuations.
  • It reduces the need for costly emissions controls.
  • It provides new energy markets and creates new jobs.

The financial impact could be significant in the Midwest. Switchgrass and other biomass materials provide an alternative crop option, animal waste and crop residues can be sold and reused, and the construction of wind farms or other green power facilities creates jobs and local rural economies.

Sources of Renewable Energy: